Architectural Science

Group Leader: Professor W. K. Chow, Chair Professor of Architectural Science and Fire Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

  Architectural Science is an important study area in the HKSAR because of so many high-rise concrete buildings erected. Thermal, acoustics, lighting, ventilation and fire aspects should all be designed carefully to give a safe, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. However, there was no support on studying those topics by the industry nor by the higher education institutes (HEI). Some studies were carried out in a self-propelled manner with limited support at the Department of Building Services Engineering (BSE), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). Activities were focused on building energy and building environment since 1987.

This research area is formalized by grouping all the related projects, upon the promotion of a Chair Professor of Architectural Science and Fire Engineering, Professor W.K. Chow (WKC), in September 1998.

Studies on building energy are considered important because the HKSAR is unique in having many curtain-walled buildings with big centralized air-conditioning systems subject to hot and humid climates. This issue will be addressed with a more analytical approach requiring the use of advanced theories in physics. Four PhD degrees were conferred by different universities under the supervision of Professor Chow.

Research in building environment is also important as people generally stay indoor most of the time. Comfortable, healthy and safe environment must be provided. Studies related to indoor air quality engineering and ventilation theory are actively performed. Development and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) packages to simulate the air flow in buildings is a major area of study. Two PhD degrees under the direct supervision of WKC, and another PhD degree through indirect advice from WKC, were conferred by PolyU.

Research activities in a new topic on Corrosion Engineering have just been launched in March 1999. Besides, ventilation theory, indoor aerodynamics including CFD, theoretical analysis of heat and moisture transfer in buildings, and modelling of building energy use should be the key areas to work on in the coming years.
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Indoor Aerodynamics

  CFD is applied in the study of indoor aerodynamics. The subject of interest lies in the numerical modelling of air flow induced by heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in bigger enclosures such as atria or industrial plants. From it, optimum design for achieving a more comfortable environment and better energy consumption of the installed services systems can be achieved. More detailed measurement on the air flow, temperature and moisture gradient induced by mechanical systems will be performed. An indoor aerodynamic chamber has been developed in the Department. A joint research project with the Kowloon Canton Railway Corporation was worked out in 1991. This project was completed successfully in 1995 with the PhD degree conferred. The research results were applied to improve the indoor environment of all the railway concourses.

For example, the Lo Wu station (with traffic loading up to over 150,000 passengers per day) was installed with partial air-conditioning systems. Passengers travelling to and fro between Mainland and HKSAR would no longer suffer from hot and humid climates. Another PhD project on this area was also completed with the degree conferred in 1997. Other projects include the application of appropriate turbulence models and numerical schemes to enhance atrium air-conditioning design, and the evaluation of the correlation between the macroscopic design parameters such as the Air Diffusion Performance Index with the predicted air flow pattern. Large eddy simulation technique will be applied to simulate indoor air flow.
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Building Energy Use

  Building energy studies include the investigation in the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV) of building envelopes. In-situ measurement, compilation of climatic data, energy simulation using higher-level packages such as the DOE-2, BLAST, ESP, etc., are carried out. The thermal responses of building envelopes and the energy consumption in actual buildings are surveyed. Also, experimental investigation with an energy model house is made, which includes measuring the cooling energy data for validating simulation programs, studying the transient indoor temperature and relative humidity, measuring the thermal performance of walls and glazing, solar radiation and heat storage effect.

Energy audit for commercial buildings is conducted to investigate the exact cooling load of the buildings in conjunction with the resulting indoor environment. The design and operation scheme of the energy-saving system will be evaluated and modifications for improving the system can then be made. Moreover, both in-situ measurement and computer simulation will be performed. The electrical end-use loads in those buildings will be monitored on a long-term basis. Their indoor environmental conditions together with the thermal comfort are also studied. Feasibility study on implementing performance-based energy codes is underway.
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Building Environment

  Research on building environment including thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) engineering was started in 1987. It concerns the possible unacceptable indoor environment due to improper design or poor operation of centralized air-conditioning systems. The works already underway are in-situ measurement on the indoor environment and the indoor air quality. Preliminary studies have been conducted to identify the environmental factors which will give rise to "sick-buildings".

Field measurements in the PolyU library and commercial buildings were made from 1987 to 1990. Another important area is the research on vehicular tunnel ventilation design. The objective is to minimize the carbon monoxide level in residential areas close to the tunnel exits. The research on ventilation system design for car parks, underground spaces and industrial halls are in progress. A multi-cell model for ventilation design will be developed.

The thermal environment in an electric cable tunnel was investigated from 1990 to 1991, as a consultancy project costing about HK$200,000, for the Hong Kong Electric Co. Ltd. (HKE). Further, the Buildings Department of the SAR government is going to revise the regulation for lighting and ventilation requirement in buildings. WKC is invited as a member of the steering committee to take care of this project.
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Current Projects

 
  • Turbulence of Air Flow Induced by MVAC Systems
  •   An amount of HK$250,000 was allocated by PolyU in September 1998.

     
  • Modelling of Building Energy Use
  •   A PhD project on using the energy simulation program BLAST was completed with the degree conferred by PolyU in 1999. Another ongoing PhD research project is on the modelling of building energy use. The thesis is expected to be submitted by mid 2001. Several papers have been published on this project.

     
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics: Simulation and Verification
  •   This is a large-scale project with two PhD degrees awarded in 1995 and 1997. However, no funding is available at the moment, though there are topics of great importance to consider.

     
  • Corrosion Engineering
  •   A PhD research project on this topic has just started in March 1999 in collaboration with the Department of Applied Physics (AP). A survey on the corrosion problems of HVAC, plumbing and drainage systems is being carried out. Practical corrosion control schemes for the local BSE industry will be developed.

     
  • Heat and Moisture Transfer through Porous Materials
  •   This is an important topic to study as the mechanisms of heat and moisture transfer would affect the heat gain through the building envelop (i.e. OTTV), fire behaviour of the structure and the durability of the materials. This is an important topic which collaboration with other PolyU departments is possible, with the input of different views from building surveyors and building engineers. For example, the effect of humidity on the durability of concrete structures has been a long-existing problem in all the public estates of the Housing Authority.

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    Output Deliverables

     
  • International Journal on Architectural Science (IJAS)
  •   The above journal was launched in 2000 under financial support from the ASD in ABTDUE. This is a high-level academic journal on the areas of direct relevance to Architecture such as thermal physics, modelling of energy uses, new forms of energy, mathematical aspect of system simulations, CFD, ventilation theory, IAQ science and engineering, acoustics, lighting and wind engineering. Editor-in-Chief is Professor W.K. Chow.

     
  • Occasional Workshops on Computational Fluid Dynamics
  •   The industry used to claim that no suitable training courses in CFD were available from local higher education institutes for their staff. Offering a series of workshops will allow practicing engineers to have sufficient training on CFD.

     
  • International Symposia on Architectural Science
  •   Symposia aiming at introducing the latest scientific concepts related to building and indoor environment will be organized. Topics cover ventilation theory, CFD, heat and moisture transfer through building envelopes, performance of building materials including durability and corrosion control.

     
  • Workshops on Heat & Mass Transfer through Porous Materials
  •   Moisture effect on the performance behaviour of structural porous materials will be discussed. These include the thermal fire resistance, durability and overall heat transfer due to solar gains of common materials such as concrete and bricks.

      More importantly, recommendations can be made to the Housing Authority on improving the durability of concrete under local environmental conditions for the public estates since the problem remains unsolved for quite a long time.

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    Track Records

     
  •  
  • Research activities 0n Architectural Science have been carrying out actively by Professor Chow since 1987. High-level works include:
     
    - thermal environment of electric cable tunnels (as a consultancy project with HKE);
    - improved IAQ at railway stations;
    - proposal of using a new thermal comfort index PLC for elevated air speed in tropical countries;
    - development of OTTV calculation procedure for the HKSAR (Chow-Chan equation refers);
    - extensive evaluation of energy simulation programmes;
    - building ventilation regulation for the HKSAR; and
    - ventilation requirement on MTR/KCR train compartments.
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  • Seven PhD projects were completed successfully with degrees conferred.
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  • Professor Chow is appointed as an Editorial Board member of the international journal: Architectural Science Review.
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  • Professor Chow is appointed as an Associate Editor of Energy - The International Journal.
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  • Professor Chow was invited by the Director of Buildings Department, SAR Government, to be a member of the Steering Group on "Ventilation and Lighting Requirement" for buildings in the HKSAR.
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    Publications in Architectural Science

    (A) Refereed Academic Journal Papers

    A1. W.K. Chow
      "Dispersion of carbon monoxide from a vehicular tunnel with the exit located along a hillside"
    Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 4, p. 231-234 (1989)
    A2. W.K. Chow
      "Modelling dispersion of carbon monoxide near a vehicular tunnel"
      Microcomputers in Civil Engineering, Vol. 4, p. 217-227 (1989)
    A3. W.K. Chow
      "Moisture content of timber species in Hong Kong"
      Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 68-72 (1990)
    A4. W.K. Chow
      "Prediction of CO level near vehicular tunnel with waiting queue"
      ASCE Transactions - Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 117, No. 1, p. 116-125 (1991)
    A5. Y.N. Au Yeung, W.K. Chow & Veronica Y.K. Lam
      "Sick building syndrome - a case study"
      Building and Environment, Vol. 26, No. 4, p. 319-330 (1991)
    A6. W.K. Chow, G.R. Baldwin & S.W. Seto
      "Indoor environment and sick building syndrome"
      International Journal of Housing Science & Its Applications, Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 43-54 (1991); Appeared also in Vol. 16, No. 1, p. 61-70 (1992)
    A7. W.K. Chow & K.T. Chan
      "Overall Thermal Transfer Value for building envelopes in Hong Kong"
      Applied Energy, Vol. 42, No. 4, p. 289-312 (1992)
    A8. W.K. Chow, Y.C. Ng & W.K. Wong
      "Visualization of thermally-induced flow in a scaled atrium model"
      International Journal of Housing Science and Its Applications, Vol. 16, No. 1, p. 1-21 (1992)
    A9. W.K. Chow, K.C. Chan & J. Ip
      "Computer simulation of the thermal environment inside a 275-kV underground electric cable tunnel"
      ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Part 2, p. 277-284 (1993)
    A10. Y.N. Au Yeung, W.K. Chow & S.T. Law
      "Survey on indoor air quality in an academic services department"
      Architectural Science Review, Vol. 37, No. 2, p. 73-79 (1994)
    A11. W.K. Chow, L.T. Wong, K.T. Chan & J. Yiu
      "Experimental studies on the airflow characteristics of air-conditioned spaces"
      ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 100, Part 1, p. 256-263 (1994)
    A12. W.K. Chow & K.T. Chan
      "A survey of the electrical energy requirement of hotels in Hong Kong"
      Energy Engineering, Vol. 90, No. 6, p. 33-42 (1993)
    A13. W.K. Chow & L.T. Wong
      "Experimental studies on air diffusion of a linear diffuser and associated thermal comfort indices in an air-conditioned space"
      Building and Environment, Vol. 29, No. 4, p. 523-530 (1994)
    A14. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Investigation of the subjective response to elevated air velocities: Climate chamber experiments in Hong Kong"
      Energy and Buildings, Vol. 20, No. 3, p. 187-192 (1994)
    A15. W.K. Chow, K.T. Chan, Francis W.H. Yik, Tony P.W. Wu, C.M. Ho & S.L. Leung
      "Building energy analysis simulation: Experience of three programs in use"
      Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 15, No. 3, p. 157-164 (1994)
    A16. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Survey on the indoor environment of enclosed car parks in Hong Kong"
      Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 247-255 (1995)
    A17. W.K. Chow & K.T. Chan
      "Parameterization study of the Overall Thermal-Transfer Value equation for buildings"
      Applied Energy, Vol. 50, No. 3, p. 247-268 (1995)
    A18. W.K. Chow
      "Ventilation design: Use of Computation Fluid Dynamics as a study tool"
      Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 63-76 (1995)
    A19. W.K. Chow
      "On ventilation design for underground car parks"
      Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 225-246 (1995)
    A20. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Indoor thermal environment survey in air-conditioned shopping malls in Hong Kong"
      Indoor Environment, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 102-112 (1995)
    A21. W.K. Chow & K.F. Tsui
      "Airflow studies in a forced ventilated chamber with low partitions"
      ASHRAE Transactions: Research, Vol. 101, No. 2, p. 125-135 (1995)
    A22. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Numerical studies on the indoor air flow in the occupied zone of ventilated and air-conditioned space"
      Building and Environment, Vol. 31, No. 4, p. 319-344 (1996)
    A23. W.K. Chow & L.T. Wong
      "Experimental studies on the air flow characteristics induced by a high-sidewall grill in a climate chamber"
      Indoor + Built Environment, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 82-98 (1996)
    A24. W.K. Chow
      "Estimation of air temperature induced by a heat source in a compartment with displacement ventilation"
      Journal of Environmental Systems, Vol. 24, No. 2, p. 205-219 (1996)
    A25. W.K. Chow
      "Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in building services engineering"
      Building and Environment, Vol. 31, No. 5, p. 425-436 (1996)
    A26. W.K. Chow
      "Simulation of carbon monoxide level in enclosed car parks using an air flow network program"
      Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 237-240 (1996)
    A27. W.K. Chow, L.T. Wong & W.Y. Fung
      "Field measurement of the air flow characteristics of big mechanically ventilated spaces"
      Building and Environment, Vol. 31, No. 6, p. 541-550 (1996)
    A28. W.K. Chow & S.K. Fong
      "Simulation of energy use in a building with three weather files of Hong Kong"
      Energy Engineering, Vol. 93, No. 2, p. 30-54 (1996)
    A29. W.K. Chow, W.F. Ho & W. K. Leung
      "Energy study in an educational institute"
      ASHRAE Transactions: Research, Vol. 102, Part 2, p. 228-235 (1996)
    A30. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Survey of the design considerations for ventilating and air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong"
      ASHRAE Transactions: Research, Vol. 102, Part 2, p. 210-219 (1996)
    A31. W.K. Chow
      "Design of ventilation system in a big enclosed car park using Computational Fluid Dynamics"
      Architectural Science Review, Vol. 39, No. 3, p. 141-145 (1996)
    A32. Y.N. Au Yeung, Philip C.H. Yu & W.K. Chow
      "Active noise control: Evaluation in ventilation systems"
      Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 17, No. 4, p. 191-198 (1996)
    A33. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Studies on the 'Ventilation Effectiveness' and modification of the ventilation system in the waiting hall of a railway station"
      Indoor + Built Environment, Vol. 5, No. 5, p. 280-290 (1996)
    A34. W.K. Chow, L.T. Wong & W.Y. Fung
      "Field study on the indoor thermal environment and carbon monoxide levels in a large underground car park"
      Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 11, No. 3, p. 333-343 (1996)
    A35. W.K. Chow & S.K. Fong
      "A preliminary evaluation of the program BLAST in simulating the use of building energy in Hong Kong"
      International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, Vol. 17, No. 2, p. 160-165 (1997)
    A36. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Experimental studies on the air flow characteristics of spaces with mechanical ventilation"
      ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 103, Part 1, p. 31-41 (1997)
    A37. W.K. Chow & S.K. Fong
      "Typical Meteorological Year for building energy simulation in Hong Kong"
      Architectural Science Review, Vol. 40, No. 1, p. 11-15 (1997)
    A38. W.K. Chow & S.K. Fong
      "Simulation of energy use for single-compartment buildings in Hong Kong"
      Applied Energy, Vol. 57, No. 1, p. 37-44 (1997)
    A39. M.Y. Chan, J. Burnett & W.K. Chow
      "Personal exposure to carbon monoxide in underground car parks in Hong Kong"
      Indoor + Built Environment, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 350-357 (1997)
    A40. W.K. Chow & L.T. Wong
      "Air diffusion terminal devices: Macroscopic numbers describing jet momentum"
      Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 19, No. 1, p. 49-54 (1998)
    A41. W.K. Chow
      "Assessment of thermal environment in an atrium with air-conditioning"
      Journal of Environmental Systems, Vol. 25, No. 4, p. 409-420 (1997)
    A42. W.K. Chow & L.T. Wong
      "Design of air diffusion terminal devices in passenger train vehicle"
      ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 12, p. 1203-1207 (1997)
    A43. M.Y. Chan, J. Burnett & W.K. Chow
      "Energy use for ventilation systems in underground car parks"
      Building and Environment, Vol. 33, No. 5, p. 303-314 (1998)
    A44. W.K. Chow & L.T. Wong
      "Survey on the air diffusion devices for air-conditioning system in Hong Kong"
      Energy Engineering - Accepted to publish, April (1998)
    A45. K.T. Chan & W.K. Chow
      "Energy impact of commercial-building envelopes in the sub-tropical climate"
      Applied Energy, Vol. 60, No. 1, p. 21-39 (1998)
    A46. W.K. Chow & Philip C.H. Yu
      "Comment on the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) for building energy control"
      ASCE Journal of Architectural Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 149-154 (1998)
    A47. W.K. Chow & L.T. Wong
      "Equations for a ventilation design derived from Computational Fluid Dynamics"
      Indoor + Built Environment, Vol. 7, No. 5-6, p. 276-288 (1998)
    A48. W.K. Chow and L.T. Wong
      "Local air speeds measurement in mechanically ventilated spaces"
      Building and Environment, Vol. 34, No. 5, p. 553-563 (1999)
    A49. W.K. Chow
      "A discussion on using Computational Fluid Dynamics in Building Services Engineering"
      Architectural Science Review, Vol. 42, No. 2, p. 121-128 (1999)
    A50. W.K. Chow & L.T. Wong
      "Thermal environment design of atria in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: A survey study"
      Architectural Science Review, Vol. 42, No. 4, p. 235-251 (1999)
    A51. Philip C.H. Yu & W.K. Chow
      "Sizing of air-conditioning plant for commercial buildings in Hong Kong"
      Applied Energy, Vol. 66, No. 2, p. 91-103 (2000)
    A52. W.K. Chow & Philip C.H. Yu
      "Simulation on energy use for mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning (MVAC) systems in train compartments"
      Energy-The International Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, p. 1-13 (2000)
    A53. W.K. Chow & Philip C.H. Yu
      "Controlling building energy use by Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV)"
      Energy-The International Journal, Vol. 25, No. 5, p. 463-478 (2000)
    A54. W.K. Chow
      "A comment on studying the ventilation requirements for buildings in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region"
      International Journal on Architectural Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 1-13 (2000)
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    Publications in Architectural Science

    (B) Refereed International Conference Papers

    B1. W.K. Chow & W.T. Chan
      "Environmental justification of a vehicular tunnel constructed in residential area"
      Proceedings 6th International Symposium on the Aerodynamics & Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels - BHRA - Paper No. C2, p. 165-177 (1988)
    B2. W.K. Chow
      "Numerical studies on air-conditioned space"
      Proceedings ASHRAE Far East Conference: Air-Conditioning in Hot Climates - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Oct., 25-28, p. 43-55 (1989)
    B3. W.K. Chow
      "Numerical studies of carbon monoxide level contour from a vehicular tunnel"
      Proceedings 7th Australian Tunnelling Conference, the Institution of Engineers, Australia - held at Sydney, Australia, p. 232-233, Sept. 11-13 (1990)
    B4. W.K. Chow, J. Burnett, K.T. Chan, T.M. Chung & F. Yik
      "OTTV studies for building envelopes in Hong Kong"
      Proceedings 1991 European Simulation Multiconference, June 17-19 (1991), Copenhagen-Denmark, p. 648-653
    B5. W.K. Chow, W.K. Wong, K.T. Chan & W.Y. Fung
      "Numerical simulation of indoor aerodynamics in big enclosed spaces"
      Proceedings Building Simulation '91, Aug. 20-22, 1991 held at Nice, France, p. 71-77 (1991)
    B6. W.K. Chow, Y.N. Au Yeung & Veronica Y.K. Lam
      "Indoor air quality at a library in Hong Kong"
      Proceedings ASHRAE Conference on Environmental Quality 5-8 Nov, 1991 held at Hong Kong - p. 39-45 (1991)
    B7. W.K. Chow & K.T. Chan
      "Solar radiation through glasses and the Overall Thermal Transfer Value of building envelopes"
      Proceedings of the 28th ASME/AIChE - 1992 National Heat Transfer Conference Session on Developments in Radiative Heat Transfer, August 9-12, 1992, San Diego, U.S.A., p. 239-243 (1992)
    B8. W.K. Chow & W.Y. Fung
      "Indoor aerodynamics and ventilation design in big enclosed spaces"
      Proceedings International Symposium on Room Air Convection and Ventilation Effectiveness - University of Tokyo, July 22-24, 1992, p. 111-124 (1992)
      Accepted as a transaction paper at ASHRAE (1993)
    B9. W.K. Chow, Y.N. Au Yeung & S.T. Law
      "Ventilation and indoor air quality in lecture rooms"
      Proceedings 2nd International Congress on Energy, Environment and Technical Innovation to be held at the Faculty of Engineering University of Rome "La Sapienza" Roma, Italy, October 12-16, 1992, p. 285-293 (1992)
    B10. W.K. Chow & S.K. Fong
      "Evaluation of the energy simulation program BLAST for buildings in Hong Kong"
      Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference, Modelling and Simulation Conference '93 held at Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A., May 10-12, 1993 Edited by M.H. Hamza, p. 130-133 (1993)
    B11. W.K. Chow, L.T. Wong & W.Y. Fung
      "Field studies on the performance of mechanical ventilated spaces"
      Proceedings of Pan Pacific Symposium on Building and Urban Environmental Conditioning in Asia - 16-18 March, 1995, Japan - Edited by N. Nakahara, p. 89-97 (1995)
    B12. W.K. Chow & Philip C.H. Yu
      "Simulation on building energy use in Hong Kong"
      Proceedings, IASTED International Conference on Applied Modelling and Simulation, July 27 to August 1, 1997, Banff, Canada, p. 177-182 (1997)
    B13. W.K. Chow
      "Simulation of air flow induced by an underfloor air-conditioning system"
      Proceedings, IASTED International Conference on Applied Modelling and Simulation, July 27 to August 1, 1997, Banff, Canada, p. 451-454 (1997)
    B14. K.T. Chan & W.K. Chow
      "Energy effective design of commercial building envelope in the sub-tropical climate"
      CLIMA 2000, Aug 30 to Sept 3, 1997 at Brussels, Belgium, p. 34-1 to 34-14 (1997)
    B15. W.F. Ho, J.A. Wright & W.K. Chow
      "Simulation study of a simple air-conditioning system for optimum control performance"
      Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy and the Environment: Efficient Utilisation of Energy and Water Resources, October 12-14, 1997, Limassol, Cyprus - Edited by S.A. Tasson, Vol. 2, p. 557-564 (1997)
    B16. Jojo S.M. Li & W.K. Chow
      "Vehicular tunnel ventilation design and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics"
      Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Air Distribution in Room, ROOMVENT 2000, 9-12 July, 2000, The University of Reading, UK, Edited by H.B. Awbi, p. 1171-1176 (2000)
    B17. H.H. Wu & W.K. Chow
      "Ventilation for kitchens in a big hotel"
      Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Air Distribution in Room, ROOMVENT 2000, 9-12 July, 2000, The University of Reading, Edited by H.B. Awbi, p. 1177-1182 (2000)
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    Publications in Architectural Science

    (C) Others

    C1.

    W.K. Chow & C.C. Leung

     

    "Preliminary survey on the indoor environment survey in some modern and old commercial buildings in Hong Kong"

     

    The Engineering Technologist, Vol. 11, No. 4, p. 53-57 (1991)

    C2.

    W.K. Chow

     

    "Building Energy and Built Environment"

     

    Proceedings of Pacific Rim Thermal Science and Energy Engineering Workshop, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, March 9-12, 1997, p. 8-9 (1997)

    C3.

    W.K. Chow

     

    "Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Building Services Engineering"

     

    Paper 32-02 National Conference in Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning - November, 1998 China (in Chinese) - Accepted to publish, May (1998)

    C4.

    Liu Fengyun & Zhou Runji (W.K. Chow)

     

    "The heating of the Manchu hourse and the Manchurian culture during the Qing Dynasty"

     

    Zhong Yang Min Zu Daxue Xue Bao, No. 6, General No. 127, p. 68-74, November (1999)



    (D) Teaching Packages

    D1.

    W.K. Chow

     

    "Lecture notes on building materials" for courses :

     

    Year 1 BEng (Hons) in Building Services Engineering;

     

    Year 1 BSc in Building Technology & Management;

     

    Endorsement Certificate in Clerks of Works Studies.

     

    Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong (1989, revised 1990, 1991)

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